Pipe snakes are found only in South India and Sri Lanka. The Western Ghats, also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains), is a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 square kilometres (54,000 sq mi) in a stretch of 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Herbaceous plant communities of this plateau were systematically surveyed during 2004-2006 as a part of Department of Science and Technology funded project on plant communities of rocky plateaus. The purple frog (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis) was discovered in 2003. If there is any place […] Konkan is famous for its many reasons. The majestic Malshej Ghat located in the Western Ghats range in Pune district of Maharashtra. [56], There is a higher fish richness in the southern part of the Western Ghats than in the northern,[56] and the highest is in the Chalakudy River, which alone holds 98 species. After the arrival of the British in the area, large swathes of territory were cleared for agricultural plantations and timber. The forest in the Western Ghats has been severely fragmented due to human activities, especially clear-felling for tea, coffee, and teak plantations[25] from 1860 to 1950. (2002). A list of lichen species from Kas area has been compiled by Dr. Gayatri Chitale & Archana Dube during their doctoral studies from Maharashtra which includes 14 species of macro lichens and 6 species of micro lichens found on Kas plateau. The average annual temperature is around 15 °C (59 °F). Kumbharali Ghat. Disturbance was also caused by the road that passes through the plateau. Raigad is a hill fort situated in Mahad, Raigad district of Maharashtra, India.It is one of the strongest forts in the Deccan Platue. [11] Several new species have been described from the region since then (e.g., Dario urops and S. Rainfall in this region averages 300 centimetres (120 in) to 400 centimetres (160 in) with localised extremes reaching 900 centimetres (350 in). [25], Bhambavli Flower Plateau, largest flower platea of the world is situated 3 km away from Kaas Plateau (reference - www. The vegetation and biodiversity values of the Kas plateau as a representative site of the threatened rocky plateau habitat has been discussed by Porembski and Watve (2005) [13] Watve (2007),[14] 2010 [15] One study has been published on the pollination mechanism (Hobbhahn et al., 2006[16] that includes field studies carried out on Kas. The Western Ghats, owing to its richness in biodiversity, nurtures more the 5,000 species of plants, 1,700 of which are endemic. All the typical microhabitats and species complexes of lateritic plateau are seen here. In 2012, thirty-nine places in the Western Ghats region have been declared as World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. [39][40][41], These hill ranges serve as important wildlife corridors and form an important part of Project Elephant and Project Tiger reserves. List of birds (about 200+ species) has been compiled by Vikram Hoshing, Sanjay Thakur and many other bird watchers of the area. Kaas Pathar is a plateau made from volcanic rocks in the Satara district of Maharashtra, and comes under the biosphere of the Western Ghats. The climate in the Western Ghats varies with altitudinal gradation and distance from the equator. Konkan is famous for its many reasons. The heavy, eastward-moving rain-bearing clouds are forced to rise and in the process deposit most of their rain on the windward side. Spectacular views of the beautiful nature enriched Western Ghats in Maharashtra. [56] The most species rich families are the Cyprinids (72 species), hillstream loaches (34 species; including stone loaches, now regarded a separate family), Bagrid catfishes (19 species) and Sisorid catfishes (12 species). [7] The small shrubs and trees are located at the periphery of the plateau. [56] Recent popularity and sudden growth in tourism are at present the most serious threats, not only to the plateau but also to the surrounding areas. [3] The plateau is situated at an altitude of 1200 metres and is approximately 10 square kilometers in area. Maharashtra: New plant species discovered in northern Western Ghats The newly discovered species, under the genus Echinops (spiny thistle) and … In some parts frost is common, and temperatures reach the freezing point during the winter months. Major gaps in the range are the Goa Gap, between the Maharashtra and Karnataka sections, and the Palghat Gap on the Tamil Nadu and Kerala border between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills. Malshej Ghat is known for its rugged hills, curvy road,dark woods and different kinds of flora and fauna especially avifauna such as quails, rails, crakes, flamingos and cuckoos. The Western Ghats meet the Eastern Ghats at the Nilgiri mountains in northwestern Tamil Nadu. Elevations of 1,500 m (4,921 ft) and above in the north and 2,000 m (6,562 ft) and above in the south have a more temperate climate. Sathodi, Magod, Hogenakkal, Jog, Kunchikal, Shivanasamudra, Meenmutty Falls, Athirappilly Falls. The majestic Malshej Ghat situated in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra. The area covers five percent of India's land; 27% of all species of higher plants in India (4,000 of 15,000 species) are found here and 1,800 of these are endemic to the region. The Villages: Asaniye & Dongarpal are small villages situated in the midst of dense forests in the Biodiversity Hotspot, Western Ghats of Savantwadi Taluka in Sindhudurg District of Mahrashtra State. Some of the wettest places in the Western Ghats are: The Western Ghats are home to four tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregions – the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, North Western Ghats montane rain forests, South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, and South Western Ghats montane rain forests. It is … The dense forests also contribute to the precipitation of the area by acting as a substrate for condensation of moist rising orographic winds from the sea, and releasing much of the moisture back into the air via transpiration, allowing it to later condense and fall again as rain. The easily visible ecological impacts of tourism are high levels of vegetation trampling, microhabitat damage and solid waste problem. This is a mountain range that run parallel to India's west coast from Kerala to Maharashtra. Clement Ben, Kolhapur’s chief conservator of forests, hailed the decision as historic, saying that it will ensure the entire stretch of diverse Western Ghats section in Maharashtra is protected. (2014). Among the indigenous species, 2,253 species are endemic to India and of them, 1,273 species are exclusively confined to the Western Ghats. Later it bought the land from villagers at a cheap price to set up four 3.75 MW windmills. This Ghat is one of the tourist attractions in Maharashtra. This ghat is on the way from Kolhapur to Sawantwadi. The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. Some enigmatic endemic reptiles include the venomous snakes such as the striped coral snake, the Malabar pit viper, the large-scaled pitviper and the horseshoe pitviper. [16] It traverses south through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala. Amboli is one of the most important places of the world’s biodiversity, Amboli village is located in Sindhudurg District and Maharashtra State Sahyadri ranges in the Western Ghats in India and the number two rainiest place in the country. The flora of Kaas are around the locality of that area. Endemic Malabar Lark is commonly observed nesting on the rocky plateau. Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS) is located on the crestline of the northern Western Ghats in Pune and Thane districts in Maharashtra State. Following is a list of peaks in the Western Ghats: Anamudi , on the right, is the highest peak of the Western Ghats at 2,695 m (8,842 ft) Meesapulimala Kerala The Western Ghats have many peaks that rise above 2,000 m (6,600 ft), with Anamudi (2,695 m (8,842 ft)) being the highest peak.[18]. As of 2004[update], 288 freshwater fish species were listed for the Western Ghats, including 35 also known from brackish or marine water. View from Varandha Pass near Mahad in Maharashtra, with numerous waterfalls, Jog Falls in Karnataka, said to be one of the most spectacular waterfalls in India, Chembra Peak, as seen from Pookode Lake in Kerala. Mullayyanagiri (1,950 m) is the highest peak in Karnataka. This Ghat is on the way from Kolhapur to Sawantwadi. It falls under the Sahyadri Sub Cluster of the Western Ghats, and it became a part of a UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site in 2012. The orchids bloom here for a period of 3–4 weeks during this season. Domestic cattle compete to a certain extent with wild mammals. Kaas Plateau, Maharashtra. The Western Ghats, (Malayalam: ‌പശ്ചിമഘട്ടം, Marathi: सह्याद्रि, The Mountain of Patience, Tamil: மேற்குத் தொடர்ச்சி மலை) is a mountain range that covers an area of 160,000 square kilometres (62,000 sq mi) in a stretch of 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, GOA, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Denison's barb is threatened from habitat loss and is now bred in captivity. Apart from the mountain ranges in the North, the Western Ghats house some magnificent hilly regions particularly the Sahyadri Hills, a chain of mountains runs along the western coast of the Indian mainland that stretches from Gujarat to Tamil Nadu that are suitable for a thrilling trekking expedition. Kas is very famous for the mass blooming of Eriocaulon spp., Utricularia spp., Impatiens lawii and Smithia spp. The Gadgil report was criticised as being too environment-friendly and the Kasturirangan report was labelled as being anti-environmental. The majestic Malshej Ghat located in the Western Ghats range in Pune district of Maharashtra. Two passes in the Sahyadri mountains are the Palakkad Gap and the Thal Ghat. Both these are irreversible unless immediate measures are taken. Malshej Ghat is known for its rugged hills, winding roads, dark wood and a wide variety of flora and fauna, especially avifuna such as quail, rail, cracks, flamingos and cuckoos. The primary threats are from habitat loss, but also from overexploitation and introduced species. [15] Basalt is the predominant rock found in the hills reaching a thickness of 3 km (2 mi). Out of these 624 species, 39 are found only in Kaas Region.[9]. [27] Silent Valley in Kerala is among the last tracts of virgin tropical evergreen forest in India. Traveling through Amboli … The largest population of tigers is in the Western Ghats, where there are seven populations with an estimated population size of 1200 individuals occupying 21,435 km2 (8,276 sq mi) of forest in three major landscape units spread across Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. J. Ranjit Daniels, Care Earth, Compiled by S. Somasundaram, Sacon (1–2 December 2005), This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 20:46. They influence Indian monsoon weather patterns by intercepting the rain-laden monsoon winds that sweep in from the south-west during late summer. Western Ghats The Western Ghats, also the "Sahyadri", is a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 square kilometres in a stretch of 1,600 kilometres parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The mountains intercept the rain-bearing westerly monsoon winds, and are consequently an area of high rainfall, particularly on their western side. It flows for 1,465 kilometres, first eastwards across the Deccan Plateau then turns southeast, entering the West Godavari district and East Godavari district of Andhra … Among the threatened freshwater molluscs are the mussels Pseudomulleria dalyi, which is a Gondwanan relict, and the snail Cremnoconchus, which is restricted to the spray zone of waterfalls. [28][29], In August 2011, the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) designated the entire Western Ghats as an Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) and assigned three levels of Ecological Sensitivity to its different regions. Heavy trampling by cattle and people has created many paths on the plateau. The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is known as the Konkan, the central portion is called Kanara and the southern portion is called Malabar. [43][44] The endemic Nilgiri tahr, which was on the brink of extinction, has recovered and has an estimated 3,122 individuals in the wild. The most serious threat is establishment of invasive weeds, which are introduced through foreign soils and can compete with the indigenous flora. [4] It contains a very large proportion of the country's flora and fauna, many of which are only found in India and nowhere else in the world. Windmills in the Koyna Sanctuary, Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Fishes of Kas area are studied by Sunil Bhoite and Dr. Neelesh Dahanukar. Major waterfalls include Dudhsagar, Unchalli, These rivers flow to the east due to the gradient of the land and drain out into the Bay of Bengal. Brahmagiri is a mountain range in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Karnataka is situated on a tableland where the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats converge into B R Hills and the Nilgiri Hills complex. Western Ghats are home to many hill stations like Matheran, Lonavala-Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu. The Kumbharli Ghat is situated across the Western Ghats range and connects Konkan region of coastal Ratnagiri to Satara … Monsoon is the perfect time to visit here to watch the beautiful dewdrops of rains in lush greenery oozing out from every nook and corner. Stretching out for almost 15 kms, Tamhini Ghat is situated on the crest of Western Ghat mountain ranges. Sunithi L. Narayan, Revathy Nagaswami, 1992. [30] The panel, headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil, was appointed by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests to assess the biodiversity and environmental issues of the Western Ghats. In the southern part of the range is Anamudi (2,695 metres (8,842 ft)), the highest peak in the Western Ghats. [60][61] A few are adapted to an underground life, including some Monopterus swampeels,[62] and the catfish Horaglanis and Kryptoglanis. Flowering Plants of the Western Ghats, India (2 Volumes), Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. [19] There are about 50 major dams along the length of the Western Ghats. They are also home to the Indian gaur and form a crucial corridor used by … Above 1,000 meters are the South Western Ghats montane rain forests, also cooler and wetter than the surrounding lowland forests, and dominated by evergreen trees, although some montane grasslands and stunted forests can be found at the highest elevations. [56] All but one (Tor khudree) of these are endemic to the Western Ghats. one the more direct way from Satara and another from Tapola via the link road connecting Mahabaleshwar and Panchgani to Kas Pathar. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Official Website of Satara Forest Department", India’s Western Ghats gets World Natural Heritage Status, BUTTERFLIES OF KAAS VALLEY, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, "Kaas to bloom for only 2,000 tourists daily - Pune -DNA", "Mr. Rajendra Shende, Chairman, TERRE, United Nations Environment Programme, Technologies and Policies, Ozon Action Programme, Multilateral Ozone Fund, Global Environmental Facility, Technology support programme, Multilateral Environmental Agreement, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Indian Institute of Technology", "Articles about World Heritage List by Date - Page 5 - Times Of India", Biodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in Kaas plateau, Satara, Maharashtra, India, "Contributions of vulnerable hydrogeomorphic habitats to endemic plant diversity on the Kas Plateau, Western Ghats", "Rocky Plateaus: Special focus on Northern Western Ghats and Konkan. [26] Historically the Western Ghats were covered in dense forests that provided wild foods and natural habitats for native tribal people. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight hot-spots of biological diversityin the world. The region is also home to many caecilian species. It is situated in Nashik District in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Amboli Ghat is a mountain pass in the Sahyadri. [45] The critically endangered endemic Malabar large-spotted civet is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals, with no sub-population greater than 50 individuals. 5.Nashik, Maharashtra : Nashik is situated in the foothills of the Western Ghats on the banks of the Godavari River. An earthquake in 1967 flattened the city. Many popular books have appeared in Marathi and English, including photoguides by Shrotri (2007),[18] Shrikant Ingalhallikar (Flowers of Kas 2012), and another by Satara Forest department in 2012. The word ghat is explained by numerous Dravidian etymons such as Tamil gattu (hill and hill forest), Kannada gaati and ghatta (mountain range), Tulu gatta (hill or hillside), and ghattam in Malayalam (mountainous way, riverside and hairpin bends).[12]. The alarming rise in the number of tourists became a serious concern since 2008. [51] Several families of frogs, namely of the genera Micrixalus, Indirana, Nyctibatrachus, are endemic to this region. Extreme seasonality influences the ecology of the site. [13][14] Roads passing through ghats are called Ghat Roads. Of the 7,402 species of flowering plants occurring in the Western Ghats, 5,588 species are native or indigenous and 376 are exotics naturalised; 1,438 species are cultivated or planted as ornamentals. Kaas has more than 850 different species of flowering plants.These include orchids, shrubs such as the Karvy, and carnivorous plants such as Drosera Indica. & Dahanukar, N. (2013): Nayar, T.S., Rasiya Beegam A., and M. Sibi. Mahe in Pondicherry is situated on the Malabar coast on the Western Ghats surrounded by Kerala; Western Ghats are known as Sahyadri in northern Maharashtra, Sahya Parvatam in Kerala and Nilagiri Malai in Tamil Nadu. [11][56][57] The region is home to several brilliantly coloured ornamental fishes like the Denison (or red line torpedo) barb,[58] melon barb, several species of Dawkinsia barbs, zebra loach, Horabagrus catfish, dwarf pufferfish and dwarf Malabar pufferfish. Kas plateau is 20 km away from Northern part of Koyana Sanctuary. Raghavan, R., Philip, S., Ali, A. The evergreen forests in Wayanad mark the transition zone between the northern and southern ecoregions of the Western Ghats. Home to India’s financial capital (Mumbai) and other incredible cities, Maharashtra is a haven for tourist destinations, adventure and blissful vacations. 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